Epigenome & NMN (Nicotinamide mononucleotide)
- The epigenome is a drove of chemical compounds (enzymes and coenzymes) that tell the genome what to do.
- The genome is your complete set of genetic instructions - DNA.
Inside the cell, many chemical reactions are occurring to maintain the health of the cells (homeostasis) and to replicate the cell when needed. The genome provides the information. The epigenome is a gene switch network that turns genes off by spooling the DNA around balls or histones and turns genes on by unspooling the DNA.
Sirtuins are enzymes or signaling proteins that turn genes on and off and are involved in repairing damaged DNA. They are referred to as “Guardians of the Genome,” as they help to maintain homeostasis.
- Sirtuins Require a Coenzyme, NAD+, to function
- When NAD+ levels drop, Sirtuins can’t function to guard the genome. Subsequently, the correct genes are not turned on and off and damaged DNA cannot be repaired. Essentially this is how aging occurs and this is how errors can trigger abnormal cells
NAD+ is a Co-enzyme
In your cells, NAD+ exists in the nucleus, mitochondria and cytoplasm. NAD+ is necessary for the Sirtuins to turn genes on and off by methylation and demethylation activity. NAD+ is also vital for cellular energy metabolism, regulation of cellular stress and nerve function.
- A study in 2012 identified that NAD+ levels decline as we age as much as 50% in some tissues.
- NAD+ can be acquired naturally in certain fish such as tuna, salmon, and sardines, as well as in mushrooms, milk and yeast.
- The degree to which NAD+ is elevated by consuming fish, mushrooms, milk, yeast, and other natural sources is negligible.
So, now you can see that with time, our NAD+ levels naturally drop and as that occurs our Sirtuins cannot function to protect and maintain the epigenome. The association between the Sirtuins and NAD+ is critical for maintaining the efficiency of the cell and consequently your different tissues. When the epigenome is disrupted in cells, the cells will either die (apoptosis), enter into senescence, or just become abnormal. Anything we can do to maintain the best environment for the epigenome should be done.
As our NAD+ levels drop, we see a surge in everything from wrinkles (senescent cells) to aging. Potential benefits of maintaining NAD+ levels exist in maintaining the brain, vasculature, liver, muscle, pancreas, bone, etc.
NAD+ is involved in turning on and off genes through its interaction with the Sirtuins by methylation and demethylation of your DNA. The importance of NAD+ levels in maintaining cellular homeostasis cannot be over-emphasized.
NAD+ is not directly consumed as a supplement. NAD+ levels can be elevated in tissues by oral ingestion of Nicotinamide Mononucleotide (NMN). NMN enters the cell in tissues and is metabolized to NAD+. Oral supplementation of NMN has been shown to increase NAD+ levels by as much as 50%-100% in some tissues.
Many studies have been completed and continue to study the positive effects, safety and tolerance of NAD+ supplementation. Ongoing studies exist evaluating the effects of NAD+ supplementation on longevity, endurance, energy, skin moisture, elasticity, firmness, wrinkles, etc. The benefits of this have been observed in laboratory tests and mammalian studies. NMN supplements have been shown to increase endurance and longevity in mammals. Human studies are expensive and time-consuming but present science supports usage to promote longevity.
Recent publications have identified that increasing NAD+ levels by ingesting NMN are associated with more elastic blood vessels, maintaining vascular health, decreasing the beta-amyloid accumulation of the brain, increasing endurance and exercise capacity, enhancing energy metabolism, promoting physical activity, and other benefits. NMN is also being studied by NASA to minimize radiation DNA damage in space to astronauts as well as by the US special forces to enhance the physical capacity of soldiers.
As NAD+ levels drop, epigenetic and mitochondrial function declines and the amount of oxidative stress that occurs in the cell increases. This increase in oxidative stress is associated with alteration in the epigenome, an inadequate repair mechanism for the cell and subsequent DNA damage. NAD+ is certainly involved in numerous cellular activities.
NMN boosts NAD+ levels in the cell’s cytoplasm, mitochondria and nucleus to maintain the genome and the epigenome. This translates to the maintenance of cellular, tissue and organ function. As NAD+ levels drop, cell death and cellular senescence develop – aging. NMN is certainly an important component of Rebesana.
NMN has been shown to be taken up in multiple tissues, specifically muscles to which they provide an energy boost. NMN has also been shown to increase endurance in mammals. Although NMN is more expensive and harder to make than another popular NAD+ booster called Nicotinamide Riboside (NR), we chose NMN over NR as our NAD+ booster because of published and reported information. NMN also appears to work at lower doses and in all tissues.
The mitochondria are the powerhouse of the cell. This is where the cell produces the majority of all the energy that your cells use and need. There are also specific Sirtuins (Sirtuins 3,4,5) that are only in the mitochondria. Only NMN worked in the mitochondrial model. We believe that NMN is a better molecule for usage in Rebesana.
- Amplification of NAD+ can occur by ingesting additional amounts of NMN as a natural bioactive product.
- Oral supplements of NMN have been shown to increase blood and tissue levels up to 140%
The oral ingestion of NMN through its natural sources alone is not enough to clinically impact the beneficial effects of NMN on Sirtuins. What is required is to amplify the amount of NMN that you can ingest to up-regulate the beneficial effects on your epigenome that in turn are associated with longevity. This is what is being done in all of the studies that have occurred and that are underway.
NMN is one of the five natural bioactive elements that we have selected to be included in REBESANA. Nothing should be more important than extending our biological clock and promoting a healthier and more athletic life. We hope that this information will help you make an educated life choice and begin using REBESANA on a daily basis. This should be the one thing you do for yourself.